Life of Stored Food

LIFE OF STORED FOOD

This is a generalized table of how long food will last if properly stored (no light, no heat, no oxygen, no bugs, etc) and kept at 60F or lower (but not freezing).

FREEZE DRY FOODS (NITROGEN BACKFLUSHED & SEALED)- 25 TO 30 YEARS

MYLAR BAGS (MRES, CAMPING POUCHES, METALLIZED BAGS)- 5 TO 7 YEARS

DEHYDRATED FOODS (SEALED, BUT NOT NITROGEN BACKFLUSHED)- 3 TO 5 YEARS

CANNING (STOREBOUGHT OR HOME CANNED)- 3 TO 5 YEARS, (possibly longer if stored properly)

SMOKED CURED- SEVERAL MONTHS

FROZEN- 1 YEAR FROZEN (BEFORE FREEZER-BURN SETS IN), FEW DAYS THAWED & REFRIGERATED

RAW FOOD- 7 TO 10 DAYS IF REFRIGERATED, LESS THAN 4 HOURS AT ROOM TEMP

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Why Prep?

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Why Prep?

Have you ever wondered how you would take care of yourself and your family if you lost your job? How about if there was a bad hurricane? Tornado? Rioting? Civil Unrest? Economic Collapse? Martial Law? Pandemic? Even Zombies?

If these thoughts have crossed your mind or haunted your dreams lately, then you might be considering becoming a Prepper.

Have you already started stocking up on extra canned goods, bottles of water, pet food, first aid supplies and self-defense weapons? Then you are already a Prepper.

Have you looked into solar and wind options for heating/cooling/powering your home and appliances? Have you considered buying land and keeping livestock and a garden? Want to live off-grid?  Then you are a Homestead Prepper.

Have you taken survival classes, learned the arts of bushcraft, fire making, escape & evasion? Are you comfortable living in the woods for a long period of time, living off the land, and using Mother Nature for all your provisions, protection, shelter, and camouflage? Then you are a Survivalist.

All and any of these labels means you are Self-Reliant or want to become Self-Reliant.

Many folks enter into prepping because they have this unexplainable feeling in their gut that something is not “right” with the world. That things are slowly getting more restrictive, less-free, more expensive and more intrusive in our private lives. That unsettling feeling is your 6th sense telling you to prepare.

For others, prepping and being self-reliant is comforting because it is a return to a simpler life much like what our grandparents and great-grandparents experienced (and we remember being told through family-handed down stories). It is a way to exit the “Rat Race” and ensure all their basic needs are met without all the hustle and bustle of big city life.  It is a way of reducing stress and anxiety in their lives, because they are providing for themselves and their families by means of a garden, food & water storage, re-learning basic DIY skills, and saving money by not spending it frivolously.  It is also a sense of accomplishing something with purpose .  It has its rewards and self-gratification.

Whatever your reasons for prepping, rest easy in the fact that your time, money and efforts have not been wasted.  Whether its a natural disaster, extended unemployment, or a true SHTF scenario, you will probably use your preps and skills at some point in your life, or at least be able to pass them down to your children for their future security.

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How to spot a Psychopath

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How to Spot Psychopaths

Hiring a contractor or babysitter? Or doing some online dating? Don’t rely on your “sixth sense” to keep you safe.

We’d all like to think that we have some sort of sixth sense that will warn us when we’re truly in danger, some animal instinct that raises the hair on the backs of our necks, gives us goose bumps and sends us running in the opposite direction.

Retired FBI profiler Mary Ellen O’Toole, Ph.D., is here to tell us the truth about trusting our intuition in perilous situations. In “Dangerous Instincts: How Gut Feelings Betray Us,” she outlines how to protect yourself and your loved ones from bad people. Her tips are especially useful if you’re thinking of doing some online dating, hiring a contractor/nanny/assistant, or letting your child’s coach or another parent give him a ride home.

It’s perilous out there, and you could just crawl under the covers (with your entire family) and never come out. Or you can learn from O’Toole’s 28 years of experience as an FBI agent, 15 of them as a profiler with the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU)—the work popularized by shows like CBS’s “Criminal Minds.” O’Toole worked on such cases as the Green River Killer, the Elizabeth Smart kidnapping and the hunt for the Unabomber. This and other experience interrogating wrongdoers taught her how to read people.

It also taught her that she can’t eyeball a serial killer or a rapist or a psychopath—no one can. Even if you pride yourself on being a good judge of character, crime stats show that the majority of people are wrong…and often.

In the 1997 bestseller “The Gift of Fear: And Other Survival Signals That Protect Us From Violence,” security consultant Gavin de Becker had some compelling anecdotes about women who smelled danger, owned their fear, and walked away with their lives. Oprah dedicated an entire show in 2008 to celebrating the 10th anniversary of de Becker’s popular book on how fear can save your life.

As empowering as it would be to have that survival sixth sense, O’Toole makes the case for being prepared rather than jeopordizing your safety by trying to “wing it.” O’Toole is not one to go with her gut. “People are adamant about holding on to the idea that they have exquisite instincts,” she says. “But how many times do you really think ‘I better listen to my stomach and do what my stomach says’? Have you really had success with doing that?”

Your judgment can be thrown off by factors like fear, stress, fatigue, alcohol or drugs, she says. “What if your inner radar was off that day?” O’Toole cites many hair-raising cases she’s familiar with from her time at the FBI. Rather than relying on your fear, what she calls her SMART system (a sound method of assessing and recognizing trouble) is a series of interviewing techniques meant to be empowering. Using the type of questioning she teaches to law enforcement officials, you can learn to evaluate contractors, boyfriends, nannies and the like. “This gives people the ability to be their own profiler, in everyday life,” O’Toole says.

Scenario 1: You’re hiring a contractor to work on your house. He’ll be there with you and your family, and sometimes when you’re not home.

Having someone come into your home with access to you (especially if you live alone) and your things is often such a casual decision,” O’Toole says. Instead, treat your first meeting like an interview. “Extracting info and reading people is a process,” says O’Toole. “You want to know if their response to criticism is going to be disproportionate. Is this the kind of person that’s just going to go ballistic?”

Among her interviewing tips: Plan the interview, be calm, and set some goals for it. You want to build a rapport and not babble on, hijacking the interview. Take it slow and “listen between the lines,” says O’Toole. Phrase questions in an open-ended, non-judgmental way: “When you’ve worked with someone and there was a problem, how did you deal with it?” Or “If someone wasn’t happy with your work, how did you deal with that?” If he avoids answers, gets defensive (“Why would you ask me such a thing?”), or changes the subject, take note.

O’Toole suggests writing down your evaluation of a person, and looking for clusters of these troubling behaviors, not just a single incident, and trying to put them in context before you make a decision.

Scenario 2: You’ve recovered from a bad breakup and are ready to date—online.

Brad’s profile catches your eye right off. He describes himself as “fit and good-looking,” and says, “I’m looking for the perfect soulmate I can love forever, someone who will love and take care of me.” O’Toole writes about the case of William Michael Barber (the “Don Juan of con”) who romanced victims via dating sites, married them, cleaned out their bank accounts, and then disappeared.

However, for would-be daters afraid that every Mr. Right is Mr. Scarypants, experts estimate psychopaths as comprising about 1 percent of the general population. Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of empathy or remorse, and by shallow emotions, among other things. However, they can be extremely charming and manipulative, and have learned to mime feelings in what O’Toole calls “impression management.” They are also, she says, masters at spotting your vulnerabilities.

Back to Brad’s profile. Although it’s unlikely he is a true psychopath, there are other negative behaviors to watch out for. “If you’re going to be online dating, look at the words in profiles,” she says. Look for lots of I/me statements that could indicate narcissism. And, from the above profile, the guy describing himself as good-looking could be a narcissist, she says. (She also points out that his adoring niece might have written his profile.) Plus, your own vulnerabilities can color your perception of him. If you ignore his initial neediness because you love that he’s always calling and texting to tell you how beautiful you are, you might wake up five years later with a possessive, jealous husband and think it’s a sudden change, O’Toole says. Watch for patterns of behavior or hints about how he acted in past relationships. A line like “I’m not a game-player,” is a red flag. Perhaps, she says, someone else has accused him of that.

Questions she suggests asking include: “What are your biggest concerns about meeting people online?” “When you’ve had good dating experiences, how did they go?” “When you’ve had bad dating experiences, how did those go?” She points out that if he blames all bad dates on the women involved, that’s a red flag.

Scenario 3: Your son Max has made a new friend, Steve, and wants to spend the night. You don’t know Steve’s family.

After buying some time, you need to meet the friend’s parents, O’Toole suggests. Even then, if they “seem nice” and have a well-mowed lawn, that doesn’t mean they don’t have unlocked guns or drugs lying around, own a pet cobra, text madly while driving, or have creepy Uncle Biff living in the basement. Get to know the parents. Check local registered sex offender lists and dangerous dog registries (the book has a chapter on such resources). Check out family members’ MySpace or Facebook pages. Visit the house; if you see anything suspicious,that opens the door to ask about it and judge how the family reacts.

Scenario 4: A uniformed telephone repairman is at your front door, but you don’t have an appointment. The last time you let in a repairman, everything went fine—and you don’t want to seem rude.

O’Toole brings up the case of Joe LaRette, who posed as a telephone repairman to get into women’s homes, whereupon he sexually assaulted and/or murdered them. Among the questions O’Toole suggests asking yourself are: Are you expecting someone? How easy would it be for him to push his way in? Are you alone? If not, is there someone there (like a child), you’d want to protect (making you more vulnerable)? Is there a way to verify the person’s identity without opening the door—for example, by calling the company? Does he have anything in his hands that could be used as a weapon?

She says that we tend to think that other people are like us, not looking to hurt others. That’s not, alas, true. Her bottom line advice: “I would recommend not opening the door at all. Anyone with a legitimate reason to be there will leave a note or follow up with a phone call. Although this might seem rude, consider that your safety is more important than whether the company gets the job done that day.”

Know how your mind works! Profiler Mary Ellen O’Toole lists five common ways you undermine your perception of people:

NORMALIZING: finding an explanation for risky behaviors. Example: Your daughter’s boyfriend complains angrily about his job and has been practicing at a shooting range. You tell yourself he’s just letting off steam.

RATIONALIZING: A strange car is parked in front of your house for hours with a man sitting in it. You decide not to call the police because you don’t want them to think you’re overreacting.

EXPLAINING IT AWAY: The parents of a missing child turned that child’s bedroom into an office shortly after the disappearance, O’Toole says. The police had decided they weren’t suspects and explained it by saying that the house was small, and they needed a “nerve center” to manage the search efforts. (The child, says O’Toole, was never found.)

IGNORING: Denial or willful blindness on the part of parents, for example, whose school-age child is alienated and looking up bomb-making online.

ICON INTIMIDATION: Bernie Madoff looked prosperous and had rich and famous clients who swore by him. A nice suit, good grooming, and a smile, not to mention family connections or a good job, can go a long way toward fooling you.

WHAT MAKES PEOPLE DANGEROUS

O’Toole has come up with a list of what she calls CTD behaviors (concerning, threatening or dangerous) that should give you pause, whether it’s your plumber, your daughter’s boyfriend or a new co-worker.
These are the top five:

  • impulsivity

  • inappropriate anger

  • narcissism

  • lack of empathy

  • injustice collecting (someone who holds onto past slights or wrongdoings)

“THROUGH A RAPIST’S EYES” (PLS TAKE TIME TO READ THIS. it may save a life.) Click Share Button to share it on your Wall.

It seems that a lot of attackers use some tactic to get away with violence. Not many people know how to take care of themselves when faced with such a situation. Everyone should read this especially each and every girl in this world.

BASIC Self Defense

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***Disclaimer:  All info contained within is for informational and educational purposes only.  Use at your own discretion and risk. ****

B.A.S.I.C. Defense Tips

  • Be Aware. Awareness is one of the most important things in Self Defense. By being aware of your surroundings, many threats on the streets can be avoided.

  • If you see or sense problems on your way, change route or go to the other side of the road and prepare to run or defend yourself.

  • Use common sense and restraint. Everyone has choices on where they go and how they get there. Keep to well lit areas, go with a buddy, avoid dangerous areas.

  • Be aware of where you are.

  • Never act or appear to be an easy target. Don’t look like victim. Someone who is walking with their head down and an uncertain gait presents an easy target.

  • Have body language that exudes self-confidence.

  • Your priorities are survival and escape.

  • Get_a_survivor_mentality.
    “I have people who count on me and I am going home tonight”.

  • Use anything you can get your hands on as a self defense weapon. A pen in your purse, keys, your fingernails-anything that might cause injury to your attacker.

  • Most “fights” are won before they start, an aggressor may back down if you maintain eye contact and do not appear to be intimidated by them.

  • Be loud, attract attention, shout words that most people understand such as no or stop.

Why We Prep

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Some people prep because they are worried about an EMP attack, or martial law, or a Super Volcano erupting.

We prep because we have been through a majority of natural disasters ourselves and with the current state of the country, we feel that Economic Collapse is inevitable.  Sometimes I think that natural disasters are attracted to me…or maybe I am just always in the wrong place at the wrong time…..or maybe because I am prepared, they don’t seem as big a deal as they do to other people.

While my mother was pregnant with me in Spokane, Washington (and my father was stationed in South Korea with the Air Force on a TDY), Mt. St. Helens erupted. My poor mother was well over 300 miles away when the volcano blew its stack, but ash rained down on Spokane and the entire state of Washington. Airplanes were grounded, traffic impeded, water ways blocked, and deadly life-choking ash clogged the air. Everyone had to wear masks on the faces to prevent ash inhalation. My mother had to lock the dogs inside the garage to keep them from going crazy (they obviously knew something was VERY wrong, and proceed to claw the hell out of my mother’s Pontiac). Clean up was extensive and recovery took awhile. Years later (obviously after being born), we visited the Mt. St. Helens National Park and saw the still-active and smoke-spewing volcano. Now, geologists and vulcanologists are tracking the volcano’s growth and expect her to blow again in the near future.

I remember living in the Upper Pennisula of Michigan as a small child and snow piling up to the roof line after one blizzard! Us kids thought it was great because we could climb up the mountain of snow and walk on the roof of our 2-story house- our parents, not so much. It caused not only damage to the house and roof, but completely shut down the power and the nearby town.  It was a good thing we had a wood-burning fireplace and food & water stocked up.  The next summer, a lightening strike caused a wildfire to break out and nearly engulf KI Sawyer AFB (which we were stationed at with the Air Force at the time).  I remember my father coming and going, smelling of heavy wildfire smoke on his clothing, as he and the rest of the military personnel battled the wildfire to protect the base.  It wasn’t until I was older, after speaking to my father about it, did I find out just how close the wildfire had come to the base  and how we all almost perished (the wildfire had spread so quickly, completely surrounding the base, that air evacuation was the only option- no one was going to drive out of that area through the wildfire.) Thankfully, God made american soldiers/military personnel resilient, tough, determined people who would never give up!  The military got the fire put out, saving the base and many, many lives.

When I was a little older, we moved to California with the Air Force, only to experience the 1989 Loma Prieta quake, the 1994 Northridge and the 1996 earthquakes that left not only Los Angeles, but the entire San Joaquin Valley in disarray. There was looting and rioting abound and a slow recovery.  On top of these two major seismic events, California was in the middle of a 7-year drought that brought wildfires, crop loss, and rolling brown-outs to the area. (Brown-outs are usually intentionally done by the local and state authorities by reducing the electrical load to prevent a Blackout or complete loss of electricity. Brown-outs are known for their dimming effect as the electrical load “sags”). Because of the extreme drought, food prices were elevated; electricity and water were rationed.  If you want to know what a state-mandated water ration is like, especially long-term, all you have to do to experience this is to tell your family they can only run water for 15 minutes total per day. You get to decide whether everyone is taking a quick 3 minute shower today or whether you are washing clothes and filling water jugs that day, because you can’t do both! And forget about watering your lawn or garden, it didn’t happen!  The vast canal network in California it uses to maintain the irrigation for its year-round crop production was strictly monitored and smaller farms went bust because they could not afford the elevated water prices…only the corporate farms could.

I’ve been through a variety of tornadoes in Oklahoma, Ohio & Tennessee. Those are always fun- trying to guess whether your town is going to be hit or missed by Mother Nature and all her fury (can you hear my sarcasm out there?).  Tornadoes, while scary (yes, they do sound like a freight train barreling down on you), in some ways have an up-side (compared to other natural disasters)- tornadoes are usually over pretty quickly (even if damage clean-up takes awhile), while other natural disasters can last hours or days.

While I was in the middle of earning my college degree at the University of Tennessee, 9/11 happened.  Now, for those of you who don’t know where UT in Knoxville is located, it is only about 20 minutes west of Oak Ridge, TN.  What’s in Oak Ridge, TN you ask?  How about Site Y12. A little history for you- Site Y12 is where the government enriched uranium to manufactured the first atom bombs that were tested (Manhattan Project) out in the Nevada desert before atom bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan during World War II.  After WWII, Oak Ridge continues to be the only national security complex in our nation that manufactures atom/hydrogen bombs (my Nuclear Chemistry professor worked there when not giving lectures at UT).  Yep, the ONLY place where we make “the bomb”.   Back to my story- 9/11 happened.  The Twin Towers had just been hit and the country was freaking out.  Two other planes were still in the air (the Pentagon and the field in Pennsylvania had not been hit yet).  So imagine being less than 20 minutes from a crapload of nuclear bombs in a nuclear facility!  Talk about complete lock-down!  Our college campus went nuts! Classes were cancelled, professors went home, students who lived locally abandoned ship to return to their homes and families, and the rest of us who were out-of-staters (students who were from another state, attending college in Tennessee) were making plans to bug out.  After the Pentagon was hit, everyone assumed that Oak Ridge was high on the list of possible targets for the terrorists.  The freeways quickly became clogged with traffic.  All airplanes were grounded, so the airport was on shut-down.  My younger brother and I were quickly plotting out on a map, back roads over the river and through the woods to grandmother’s house we would go!  My grandparents were on the other side of the state, roughly a 6 hour drive from UT.  It took a lot of time, planning, patience, and map reading to get us to Memphis from Knoxville, without using the freeways, but we managed to do it.

Fast Forward:  A couple years before I met my husband, he endured Hurricane Floyd in coastal North Carolina. He lost his home, his SUV, furniture, everything. He filed his FEMA claim and you know what the government said the worth of all his lost property was?  $900. They sent him a check for $900 that was supposed to replace his house, his vehicle, and everything he lost in his home. Lesson learned?  Don’t rely on the government to bail you out or help you in any way. They are not your friends. And don’t count on your home owner’s insurance to pay for everything either. They have so many loop-holes to get out of paying for damages caused by storms and flooding, you wouldn’t believe it.

About 4 months into our wedded bliss in our small apartment, living the coastal beach life in North Carolina, Hurricane Isabel hit us. Everyone knew it was coming, thanks to the National Weather Service and the Coast Guard.  We were already preppers, but went down to the local Walmart to get a few extra supplies.  When we got there, it was a madhouse. We got to see exactly what civilization decays into at the very threat of impending doom. The shelves were completely bare, the camping aisle look like a tornado had hit it, and there were people fighting each other over the last can of beanie weanies. It was insane. People were running around in a panic like chickens with their heads cut off. The gas pumps had already shut down with a long line of customers waiting because no more gas deliveries were being made (due to the hurricane coming). If you hadn’t left town the day before, you were stuck there. We didn’t evacuate the area because we didn’t want to be one of the thousands who would be stuck on Hwy 70 out of town in a traffic jam. We managed to get a couple more canned goods, another water storage container, and a couple of Sterno cans. But that was it. Less than 48 hours till the hurricane was going to hit the coastline and Walmart was bare of supplies other than freezer goods (which no one would buy because they knew the hurricane would knock out the power).  Then Isabel hit with full force of a Cat 5 hurricane.

We lost power, had roof and structural damage and flooding. Our tiny town was damn near wiped off the map by the hurricane, but the news only portrayed the damaged caused to the shipyards in Norfolk, VA. They completely ignored the damage to the Carolinas. FEMA never showed up and certainly did not send anyone a check for hurricane damages.  Both our places of employment were completely shut down due to damage and flooding. Unfortuntely, when a storm shuts down business, you don’t get to collect unemployment, because you haven’t been fired and your work is not seasonal. You are just screwed on your paycheck until the business repairs damages and puts people back to work, or worse, goes out of business completely because repairs are too costly.   Thank God we had some money at home (banks and ATMS didn’t work- no power) and food and water stored. We would have been in a far worse boat if we had not been preppers. We even managed to give some of our prep supplies to our friends and neighbors who had not been smart enough to stock up before the hurricane hit.

Years later, we found ourselves living in Michigan (my second TOD to the Wolverine state!) and a bad thunderstorm with high winds came off of Lake Michigan and hit our little town, knocking power out for 3 days.  I was 5 months pregnant at the time with our son, and feeling like a beached whale in the hot humidity. (No power means no air conditioning!)  The hubby hooked up our gas-powered generator (running off our stored gas supply) and we were the only people in town to have lights and a cold, running refrigerator!  Well, almost the only people in town- the casino down the street that had its own back-up generators was happily taking gambler’s money and feeding a massive crowd at the buffet.  We kept the air conditioning off to save on electrical load (which made my bloated preggers body miserable), but we had lights and we happily ate a dinner I cooked in our home while everyone else was trying to find someplace that was open to purchase a meal (the grocery store was closed, everyone’s power was out, and no restaurants were open, save for the casino).  Being prepared has really paid off in our lifetime.

So what have we learned from all the natural disaster we have endured?  To continue to Prep and to always be Prepared!  Prepping has saved our lives more than once and has even helped us through periods of unemployment!  It has also exposed us to survival scenarios and how people react under pressure.  Prepping can save your life too if you start now!  You can learn from us, we teach Prepper and Survival classes to the general public for reasonable fees.  Just visit our website to find out more info.  www.schoolofselfreliance.wix.com/schoolofselfreliance

http://wn.com/hurricane_isabel__high_winds

-Sarah

Rules to Live By & Survive By

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RULES TO LIVE BY AND SURVIVE BY

1)  THE SIX P’s

PREVIOUS AND PROPER PLANNING PREVENTS POOR PERFORMANCE.

(HAVE A PLAN BEFORE YOU HAVE A PROBLEM.)

2)  KISS

KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID.

(COMPLICATION LEADS TO CONFUSION)

3)  REDUNDANCY

SIMPLY DON’T PUT ALL YOUR EGGS IN ONE BASKET, HAVE A BACK-UP PLAN & GEAR. ONE IS NONE, TWO IS ONE, ETC.

4)  MINDSET

SURVIVING ANY CRISIS IS DEPENDENT ON YOUR MENTAL OUTLOOK AS WELL AS MAINTAINING A CALM STATE OF MIND.   FEAR AND PANIC KILL.  MAINTAINING A POSITIVE MENTAL OUTLOOK AND CONFIDENT DEMEANOR WILL NOT ONLY BENEFIT YOU, BUT WILL BENEFIT THOSE AROUND YOU GREATLY.

5)  TRAINING

THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR BEING TAUGHT THE CORRECT WAY OF DOING THINGS.

6)  SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

WHETHER IN YOUR OWN HOME, BUSINESS, OR OUT AND ABOUT, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IS THE GREATEST AID FOR BEING SAFE, FOR AVOIDING A PROBLEM, OR AVOIDING A BAD SITUATION.  MOST FIGHTS, MUGGINGS, ROBBERIES, OR OTHER SITUATIONS CAN BE AVOIDED AND STOPPED BEFORE THEY START BY PROPER SITUATIONAL AWARENESS.

7)  BEING ARMED

JUST HAVING A WEAPON DOES NOT MAKE YOU ARMED ANYMORE THAN OWNING A GUITAR MAKES YOU A MUSICIAN.  LIKE WITH ANY OTHER PIECE OF EQUIPMENT, YOU MUST LEARN HOW TO USE IT.

Tough times DO NOT build character. Tough times REVEAL character

Rule of 3

RULE OF 3’S TO SURVIVE

The number 3 can be the key to your survival in an emergency. When you must prioritize your needs quickly, it helps to know what is most urgent. Knowing the rules of 3 can give you the information you.

YOU CAN ONLY SURVIVE . . .

3 SECONDS without hope
Most individuals freeze in an emergency. In the immediate confusion and chaos, the human brain tries to draw upon some familiar experience for a plan of action. Finding none, we become immobile. You have three seconds to decide that you have hope and move forward. Statistics show that in a plane crash, you have 90 seconds to exit the wreckage. Three seconds without hope can make the difference between whether or not you have time to clear the area.  Survival depends upon your ability to shake yourself out of the stupor of disbelief and hopelessness.

Walter B. Cannon studied the case histories of sudden, unexplained deaths from around the world. In 1942, he published his theory that the brain unleashes stress hormones that can cause fatal heart arrhythmias in individuals that have given up all hope of escape — they are literally scared to death. Use fear to spur yourself towards life-saving action. Determine to grasp onto hope and make a plan to live.

3 MINUTES without air                                                                                                             Few people can hold their breath for 3 minutes. In circumstances where oxygen is limited, your next priority is to get to a place where you can breathe.

3 HOURS without shelter (in extreme conditions)                                                                 Once you have breathable air, your next priority is to find (or construct) shelter. Those who take off on prolonged hikes may find themselves going in circles and/or racing the setting sun to construct safe sleeping quarters. In extreme conditions, you can live for a couple of days without water and weeks without food, but you cannot survive without shelter. You could suffer from hypothermia at 50 degrees, especially if the wind is blowing and you are wet. In warm climates, you will need shelter from the sun. Protect yourself from the elements.

3 DAYS without water                                                                                                                 The next challenge is to find clean water. This may mean collecting rainwater or finding a water source shared by plants and animals. Avoid activity that leads to lots of sweating and heavy breathing. This causes your body to lose water more quickly. Conserve what water your body has by working at a nice steady pace. Whatever your course of action, your body will need water soon.

3 WEEKS without food                                                                                                                   Some of us will survive even longer without it, but food will become an urgent concern for survival after a couple of weeks. With plenty of water, some can even survive longer than three weeks, but you will want to locate a source of nourishment while you still have the strength to do so.

3 MONTHS without companionship or love                                                                            This is actually part of the first rule of 3. In order to continue in a prolonged survival circumstance, most people need to have a sense of purpose and belonging. Knowing that someone is there for you and caring what happens to you can help you continue doing what is necessary for survival when the days and weeks seem to drag. Strong faith will make all of the difference for these survivors.